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Sabtu, 15 Januari 2011

SKILL BASED SYLLABUS


CURRUCULUM AND MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT  I
SKILL-BASED SYLLABUS


 











BY GROUP VI
ZAKRIDATUL AGUSMANIAR RANE (A1D2 08018)
IIN MUTMAINNAH (A1D2 08011)
HARLIA (A1D2 080  )
DWI JAYANTO (A1D2 08028)
RAHMIANTI RAMA (A1D2 060028)




ENGLISH LEARNING AND TEACHING
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL FACULTY
UNHALU
2010





SKILL-BASED SYLLABI


1.   INTRODUCTION
The term “skill” in language teaching is used as a specific way of using language that combines structural and functional ability but exists independently of specific settings or situations. In the other hand, skill is the ability that people must be able to competent enough in language, rather independently of the situation or context in which the language use can occur. The examples are reading skills such as skimming and scanning; writing skills such as writing specific topic sentences or writing memos, reports; speaking skills of giving instructions, personal information, asking for emergency help over the telephone; and listening skills such as getting specific information, listening to foreign radio for news, talking orders in a restaurant and so on. It is also called competency-based instruction.
The ability to use language in specific ways is partially dependent on general language ability, but partly based on experience and the need for specific skills. Efficiency and relevance of instruction are major strengths of skill-based syllabus.
The skills are presented broadly and with varied applications (e.g. intensive reading of many different types of texts) so that specific skills and global ability are developed simultaneously.
The general theory of learning is that the learning of complex behaviors such as language is best facilitated by breaking them down into small bits (skills), teaching the bits, and hoping that the learner will be able to put them together when actually using them.
In skill-based syllabus, the content of the language teaching involves a collection of particular skills that may play a role in using language
The primary purpose of skill-based instruction is to teach the specific language skill that may be useful or necessary in using language. Skills are things that people must be able to do to be competent in a language. Unlike situational syllabi where functions are grouped together into specific language use settings, skill-based syllabi group linguistic competencies (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and discourse) together into generalized types of behavior, such as listening to spoken language for the main idea, writing well-formed paragraphs, specific purpose writing, and so forth.

2.   EXAMPLE OF SKILL-BASED SYLLABUS

Skill-based syllabus merge linguistic competencies (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and discourse) together into generalized types of behavior such as listening to spoken language for the main idea, writing well-formed paragraphs, delivering effective lectures and so forth. There are some examples of the way to apply skill-based syllabus such as:
Guessing vocabulary from context             scanning or non prose material
Reading for the main idea                          Using affixes as clues to meaning
Inference                                                    More scanning of non prose material
Summarizing readings                                More work on affixes
Dictionary work                                         Restatement of informational content
More inference work                                  More affix work
More statement                                           More inference
Analysis of paragraph structure                  Critical reading skill
Using context clues                                    Using expectations
Based on the example above, some examples of competence that must be had by the students are:
-          Students will be able to identify common food items from each food group
-          Students will be able to read name and price label
-          Students will be able to identify coins by name and amount
-          Students will be able to give correct change
-          Students will be able to identify family members by name and relationship
-          Students will be able to write name, address, telephone number, and age in appropriate place form.
To apply this syllabus in learning process, teacher can do some activity like role play, dialogue, writing short paragraph, reading activity in group, etc.





3.   POSITIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL-BASED SYLLABI

Here some positive characteristics of skill-based syllabus:
a.        Skill-based content is most useful when learners need to master specific types of language uses. For example, students planning to work in higher education in second language obviously need broad proficiency in the language.
b.      It is possible to predict at least what material that students really need, for example student will need specific reading and note-taking skill, the skill of comprehending academic lectures, and ability to do certain types of academic writing.
c.        Relevance on student-felt needs or wants is the advantage of the skill based syllabus because learners who know what they need to do with the language generally show great acceptance of instruction that is clearly directed toward their goals.

4.   NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL-BASED SILABUS

Like as other types of syllabi, skill-based syllabi also have negative characteristic. Under the right circumstance, the skill based syllabi has few drawbacks. Up till now, there is a theoretical question about this kind of syllabus. That is about the whether the degree to which ability to perform specific in language is dependent overall language proficiency or not.
Besides that, there are different opinions about this syllabus related to the relationship between skill instruction ad general language proficiency. One side believes that skill based syllabus will be helpful because someone learns language specifically. But other side said that this syllabus will limit some one’s general language proficiency.
Social and philosophical question also rise about the social values that are contained in many skill instructional based program. Skill based instruction that is too limited in scope can program students for particular kinds of behavior (e.g. obedience in a work setting) or isolated them from achievements and ambition that the competencies do not prepare them for (e.g. education rather than entry-level employment).

5.   APPLICATIONS

Skill-based instruction is most appropriate when learners need specific skills, and especially when these skills are well-defined and the learners have little need for global language ability. Basically, skill-based instruction is for Language for Special Purpose (LSP).  The example of skill based instruction application is in life skills and immigrants and refugees or language programs preparing students for academic work
Skill-based instruction is probably more appropriate for adults that for children, for whom emphasis on concrete content is more appropriate. Skill-based instruction is not appropriate, in large amount, at least, for general purpose or beginning level language programs in which the need of the learners are broad or yet to be defined. In such case, focusing on narrow skill-based applications will take instructional time away from content that is more likely to address their need for overall language proficiency.

CONCLUSSION
Skills are abilities that people must be able to do to be competent enough in language, rather than independently of the situation or context in which the language usage can occur. In this syllabus, the content of language teaching involves a collection of particular skills that may play role in using language.
Skill based syllabus merges linguistic competencies (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and discourse) together into generalized type of behavior, such as listening to spoken language for main idea, writing well-formed paragraph, delivering effective lectures and so forth.
On one hand Relevance on student-felt needs or wants is the advantage of the skill based syllabus because learners who know what they need to do with the language generally show great acceptance of instruction that is clearly directed toward their goals. But on the other hand, there are many people argue that skill based syllabus will limit people general language proficiency and some bad impact related to social value that Skill based instruction that is too limited in scope can program students for particular kinds of or isolated them from achievements and ambition that the competencies do not prepare them.




 










BY GROUP VI
ZAKRIDATUL AGUSMANIAR RANE (A1D2 08018)
IIN MUTMAINNAH (A1D2 08011)
HARLIA (A1D2 080  )
DWI JAYANTO (A1D2 08028)
RAHMIANTI RAMA (A1D2 060028)




ENGLISH LEARNING AND TEACHING
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL FACULTY
UNHALU
2010
 


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