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Kamis, 08 Desember 2011

Report of Reading Comprehension Test (At SMA Negeri 4 Kendari Class X.3)

1.      General Explanation

In our paper, we are focus on reading comprehension. And the purpose of this paper is we want to report about reading comprehension test. The reading comprehensions here are to identify the main idea or general information of the text, to guessing the word (vocabulary) by synonym and also to identify the reference word. The reading test consists of Narrative and Recount test based on the syllabus of Senior High School Class X. This test consists of 25 numbers of multiple choice questions (four options). It will be done in SMA Negeri 4 Kendari.
Reading is about understanding written texts. While comprehension is the process of making sense of words, sentences and connected text. Readers typically make use of background knowledge, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, experience with text and other strategies to help them understand the written text.
In order to understand a text, readers need to know the meanings of individual words. They construct an understanding of the text by assembling and making sense of the words in context. Vocabulary knowledge is difficult to measure. However, it is very important in learning to read and in future reading development.

2.      Planning
In our report about reading comprehension, we have some jobs namely:
a.         Make reading test, namely recount text (11 numbers) and narrative text (14 numbers). This reading test is multiple choice questions (four options) that consist of 25 questions. It has been done by Wd. Nurmaulid and Rosmita.
b.         Find out some resources to support or related to our project (Reading). It has been done by Harnowo
c.         After make the reading test, we give it to Ld. Muhaimin and other friends to read again the reading test if there is something should be rearranged. And also the English teacher sees this test.
d.        After rearranged the test, we copy it based on number of students in the class and asking permission to the English teacher of SMA Negerei 4 Kendari. It has been done by Nurwahyuni.
e.         We distribute the reading test to the school at SMA Negeri 4 Kendari Class X.3. It has been done by Nurwahyuni, Rosmita and Wd. Nurmaulid. (November 23, 2011)
f.          After distributed the test, we give the score based on the key answer. It has been done by Harnowo and Ld. Muhaimin
g.         After giving the score, we measure the reliability of the test. It has been done by all member of our group.

3.        The Objective
a.       The audience here is the students of SMA Negeri 4 Kendari Class X.3 consist of 34 students.
b.      The behavior we want to see from this reading test are:
Ø  To identify the main idea or general information of the text.
Ø  To guessing the word (vocabulary) by synonym.
Ø  To identify the reference word in the text.
c.       The condition: give students the reading test (25 numbers of Multiple Choice Questions) that consists of recount and narrative text. Ask the students to answer the reading test based on their own knowledge.
d.      The score should be achieve here is 75 and the total number of students should be reach it is 75 % from the total number of students in the class.
e.       Time allocation : 45 minutes

4.        Reading Test

Reading text to questions number 1-6!
One day, Jane was caught in the rain. When she reached home, she started sneezing. Soon, Jane was down with a cold.
The next morning, Jane’s mother took her to the doctor. The doctor said that Jane had flu and he gave her some medicine. He also advised Jane to drink more water and take a good rest. When Jane reached home, she went straight to bed. She slept till lunch time. Her mother carried her meal to her bedroom. She also brought Jane her medicine. After eating, Jane went back to sleep.

  1. What is the kind of text above?
a.         Narrative                          c. Report
b.         Recount                            d. Descriptive
  1. Why did Jane catch a cold?
a.    Because she was caught it from her friend’s                     
b.    Because she drank too much ice   
c.    Because she did not wear a raincoat
d.   Because she was caught in the rain
  1. What did her mother do to know her daughter to catch a cold?
a.    She gave some water                      c. She asked her to go to bed
b.    She took her to the doctor              d. She gave some medicine
  1. What did the doctor suggest to Jane?
a.    Not to catch in the rain                   c. To take enough nap
b.    To be careful                                   d. To drink more water and take a good rest
  1. What did Jane do after arriving at home?
a.    She went to bed                             c. She had lunch
b.    She took meals                               d. She drank a glass of water
  1. “When Jane reached home, she went straight to bed”. (Paragraph 2)
What does the synonym of the underlined word above?
a.    Crooked                              c. Strong
b.    Directly                               d. Easy

Reading text to questions number 7-13!
Long time ago in West Java, lived a woman named Dayang Sumbi. She lived in the forest.
One day Dayang Sumbi was quilting when suddenly, her quilt fell off from her house. Then she prayed to Gods, “If a man picks up my quilt, he will be my husband, if a women, she will be my sister.” Then, a male dog picks it up. For keeping her words, Dayang Sumbi married the dog and called him Tumang. Dayang Sumbi gave births a baby, named Him Sangkuriang, but never told him who his father was.
One day, Sangkuriang was hunting with Tumang in the forest and he found nothing. He blamed Tumang for the failure and killed him. When Dayang Sumbi knew that, she hit Sangkuriang’s head with a big spoon and asked him to go.
Many years later, the wandering Sangkuriang found a house in the forest and an old beautiful woman was in the house. The woman, Dayang Sumbi recognized the adventurer as Sangkuriang. Sangkuriang forced her to marry him and Dayang Sumbi asked him to make a vast boat in the one night. In the night, Sangkuriang called his friends, ghosts and forest fairies to help him. Dayang Sumbi feared the boat could be finished on time, so she asked some woman nearby to help her. The women hit the grains with puncher to make noise which disturbed the ghosts and the fairies. The ghosts and the fairies ran away before completing the boat. Sangkuriang was very angry. He kicked away the boat upside down and it turned into a mountain called Tangkuban Perahu. It means the downside boat, which stood in the north of Bandung.
7.      Why did Dayang Sumbi ask the women to punch the grain?
a.    She was afraid the boat would be completed in one night.
b.    She wanted to help Sangkuriang making a boat
c.    She wanted the boat completed soon.
d.   She was angry with Sangkuriang
8.      Why did Sangkuriang kick away the boat upside down?
a.    He failed to make the boat
b.    He was disappointed with the ghost and the fairies.
c.    He wanted to make a mountain from a boat.
d.   He wanted to show his strength to Dayang Sumbi.
9.      What is the main idea of paragraph two?
a.    Dayang Sumbi married the Dog
b.    Dayang Sumbi’s quilt feel off from her house
c.    Dayang Sumbi gave births to a baby
d.   A male Dog picked up Dayang Sumbi’s quilt.
10.  “…that Sangkuriang had to build a Vast boat for their honeymoon…” (Paragraph 4). What does the underline word mean…?
a.    Very expensive                               c. Extremely large
b.    Very luxurious                                d. Extremely beautiful
11.  What is the moral value of the story?
a.    Do the work patiently without asking for someone’s help
b.    Tell the truth to avoid something unexpected
c.    Don’t blame someone for our failure
d.   Don’t trust ghost and fairies
12.  Which paragraph tells us about the resolution of the text?
a.    Paragraph three
b.    Paragraph two
c.    Paragraph one
d.   Paragraph four
13.  He blamed Tumang for the failure and killed him.” (paragraph 3)
The underlined word refers to the…
a.    Sangkuriang’s father
b.    Tumang
c.    Sangkuriang
d.   Dayang Sumbi’s father

Reading text to questions number 14-18!
My cousins and I went to a shopping mall in their car. I was tired after school and was feeling a bit sick. As we were coming out of the shopping mall, I remembered that I need a new correction pen. I told my cousins to wait for me in the car, I went back to buy a correction pen. Coming out of the mall, I went directly to my cousins’ and grabbled the door handle. To my surprise, it didn’t open. As I tried again, the window suddenly slid down a face stared at me from inside the car. It wasn’t my of my cousin’s face. Then I heard voices shouting not far away, my cousins’ voices. Oh my God. My face turns red. I had tried to get into the wrong car. I apologized and hurried to my cousin’s car. They all teased me. I was so mortified.

  1. The structure of the text above is…
a. Narrative     b. Report         c. Recount       d. Descriptive
  1. What is the text about?
a.       Problems in mall
b.      An embarrassing experience
c.       Shopping in mall
d.      The car of the writer’s cousin
  1. The writer came back to the shopping mall because…
a.       The writer felt sick
b.      The writer was tired after school
c.       The writer wanted to buy a correction pen
d.      The cars door can not be opened
  1. Why did the writers’ cousin shout to the writer?
a.       The writer’s car was broken
b.      The writer grabbled the door handled
c.       The writer tried to enter a wrong car
d.      There was a red face inside the car
  1. What did the writer feel after realizing that she/he did something wrong? The writer felt:
a. Surprised     b. Happy         c.  Afraid         d. Ashamed

Reading text to questions number 19-25!
One hot day, an ant was searching for some water. After walking around for some time, she comes to a spring.
To reach the spring she had to climb up a blade of grass. While making her way up, she slipped and fell into the water.
She could have downed if a dove up a nearby tree had not helped her. Seeing that the ant was in trouble, the dove quickly plucked a leaf and dropped it into the water near the struggling ant. The ant moved towards the leaf and climbed up there. Soon, it carried her safely to dry ground.
Just as that time, a hunter nearby was throwing out his net towards the dove, hoping to trap it. Guessing what he was about to do, the ant quickly bit him on the heel. Feeling the pain, the hunter dropped his net. Quickly, the dove flied away to safety. 

19.  What did the dove do to save the ant?
a.       Dove climbed the nearby tree
b.      Dove saw the ant struggling
c.       Dove dropped a leaf
d.      Dove carried the ant to dry ground
20.  Which statement is TRUE according to the text?
a.       The dove bit the hunter on the heel
b.      Both animals were finally safe
c.       The hunter killed the dove
d.      The ant bit the dove
21.  What is the purpose of the text?
a.       To inform the readers about an ant
b.      To describe the job of a hunter
c.       To entertain the readers
d.      To describe a dove
22.  What can we learn from the story?
a.       One good turn deserves another
b.      Don’t be greedy or you may lose
c.       When there is a will, there is away
d.      It is wise to plan a head for hard time
23.  “…, she comes to a spring.” (paragraph 1)
The underline word mean…
a.       Water in pail
b.      River in the middle of the city
c.       Flood in the middle of the jungle
d.      Water emerging from underground.
24.  “…, the dove quickly plucked a leaf…” (paragraph 3)
The underline word mean…
a.       Pull something
b.      Push something
c.       Put something
d.      Prick on something

25.  “Soon, it carried her safely to dry ground.” (paragraph 3)
The underline word refers to the…
a.       Ant
b.      Leaf
c.       Dove
d.      Spring

5.    Marking Scheme

            The Criteria:
·         80 – 100 = Very Good
·         70 – 79   = Good
·         60 – 69   = Enough
·         0 – 59     = Low                                                                     
(Sudijono, 1987)


1.      B                          16. C              
2.      D                          17. C
3.      B                          18. D
4.      D                          19. C
5.      A                          20. B
6.      B                          21. C
7.      A                          22. A
8.      B                          23. D
9.      A                          24. A
10.  C                          25. B
11.  C
12.  D
13.  C
14.  C
15.  B


The steps that have been done by our group on conducting this project
1.        Firstly, our group decide the location for distribute the Reading Test by observing several schools that is appropriate with the purpose of our project that is the report of Reading Comprehension test. Finally, decision shows that SMA Negeri 4 Kendari as the object of our project.
2.        Secondly, one of our group members namely Nurwahyuni meet the English teacher of SMA Negeri 4 Kendari to get permit. The English teachers’ name is Mr. La Mima. He makes limitation for us. He gives permit to us to enter the Class X.3. We may come to the class merely on Wednesday, November 23, 2011 at 12.00 pm.
3.        Then, on November 23, 2011 at 12.00 pm, we come to SMA Negeri 4 Kendari and distribute the reading test to the students. The English teacher gives us 45 minutes.
4.        After distribute the reading test, we say thank you to the English teacher.
5.        Finally, our group writes down the report in to a paper as the result of our project that will be presented in class.

The result of the project
After doing all of planning, we can conclude the result in following items:
1.        Score of the students
The score should be achieve here is 75 and the total number of students should be reach it are 75 % from the total number of students in the class. It means that from 34 students, there are 25 students should reach it. From the result of the test, there are 29 students get score on 75 and only 5 students didn’t get score 75. It means that the target that is 75 % from the total number of students in the class have got score 75.
Most of students can not answer the question number 11 and 25. It is about the moral value of the test and also the reference word. The moral value also related to the general information (indirect information/indirect message). For the question number 11, the moral value of the story is C. don’t blame someone for our failure.
While reference is used to change the word or idea that has been mentioned before, therefore we will not reply the word again.
            Example: there is a new student in my class.
                            He comes from Makassar. (He refers to a new student)
For the question number 25, “Soon, it carried her safely to dry ground. The underline word refers to the B. Leaf

2.        Reliability

What are Multiple Choice Questions?

MCQs have a great advantage over open-ended questions: it is easy to grade them, with total parity across students. Although they can’t assess the task performance ability of an individual (as all written examination forms), MCQs are commonly used in objective tests (i.e. those in which scores are not influenced by the opinion of the examiner).
Multiple choices is a form of assessment in which respondents are asked to select the best possible answer (or answers) out of the choices from a list
Multiple choice items consist of a stem and a set of options. The stem is the beginning part of the item that presents the item as a problem to be solved, a question asked of the respondent, or an incomplete statement to be completed, as well as any other relevant information. The options are the possible answers that the examiner can choose from, with the correct answer called the key and the incorrect answers called distracters. Only one answer can be keyed as correct. This contrasts with multiple response items in which more than one answer may be keyed as correct.

Components of an MCQ

Multiple-choice items are typically composed of questions that require candidates to select one clearly correct or best option from those provided. They consist of a stem that “asks the question or sets up the situation for response”, followed by a series of one correct and several (generally around three) incorrect options (distractors). Background material such as text, tables, graphics, etc may be included, as may specific instructions, which should be clear.

A standard multiple-choice test item consists of two basic parts: a problem (stem) and a list of suggested solutions (alternatives). The stem may be in the form of either a question or an incomplete statement, and the list of alternatives contains one correct or best alternative (answer) and a number of incorrect or inferior alternatives (distractors).

What makes a good MCQ?

Not surprisingly, the first step in writing good multiple-choice items is to be clear about the purpose of the questions (what learning or skill is being assessed) and how the data resulting from the answers will be used. This involves being aware of the attributes you are seeking to measure (simple recall of facts, ability to analyze information, etc), as well as the domain (knowledge or skills area) from which the material being tested is drawn.

Ø  Clarity
It is important that responses identified as correct by the item writer are, in fact, correct, or clearly able to be assessed as the best available.

Ø  Appropriateness
Ensure that the item relates to a learning objective and is suitable for the intended audience.

Ø  Distractors
Distractors should be plausible to candidates who do not possess the required knowledge or skills to identify the correct alternative. Frequent areas of misunderstanding are useful sources from which to compose distractors. Distractors are not space fillers and there is no need to create large numbers of distracters simply for the sake of it. 

Ø  Grammatical accuracy
All options should be a grammatical match for the stem and be listed in logical or alphabetical/numerical order. Information required to answer the question must be clear and unambiguous, as must the requirements of the question. It is helpful to avoid repetitive words in the options. Underline adjectives or adverbs that significantly alter the meaning of the stem.

Ø  Options
Ensure that all options are parallel in type of content. Correct options should not be able to be identified simply because they are so different in style from the distractors, (e.g. complexity of language or grammatical construction). Use of the options ‘All of the above’ or ‘None of the above’ is the subject of debate. They should be used with care, rather than as a matter of course or convenience

Ø  Questions
It is useful to present the stem as a question, rather than an incomplete statement. These should be brief questions and not contain extraneous content.

Ø  Independence
Items should be independent of each other; i.e. the ability of a candidate to correctly answer an item should not depend on them having answered other items correctly, nor should a candidate find clues that will aid in answering any given item by reading another item in the same test.
Where possible, it is highly desirable to pilot the questions to assess functionality, grammar, possible ambiguity, the plausibility of distractors and the accuracy of the question and answer.

Guidelines for Constructing Multiple-Choice Items
1.        Construct each item to assess a single written objective.
2.        Base each item on a specific problem stated clearly in the stem.
3.        Include as much of the item as possible in the stem, but do not include irrelevant material
4.        State the stem in positive form (in general).
5.        Word the alternatives clearly and concisely
6.        Keep the alternatives mutually exclusive.
7.        Keep the alternatives homogeneous in content.
8.        Keep the alternatives free from clues as to which response is correct

Advantages of Multiple Choice Questions

  • ·       MCQs can be easily marked/scored, and this scoring can be both accurate and objective. In particular, MCQs can be MACHINE SCORED (This means that a computer will do all the marking for you!)
  • ·       MCQs can be set at different cognitive levels. For example, a question may simply challenge a student's ability to recall facts, while another may test a student's ability to apply factual knowledge to given situations; or, at a higher level, a question may test a student's ability to evaluate given information.
  • ·       MCQs can be designed with a diagnostic end in mind, in order to find out whether specific areas of a given subject are adequately known, or in order to detect misconceptions. This can provide feedback on the effectiveness of instruction.
  • ·       Students with poor reading skills and second-language learners need not be disadvantaged, provided the tests are designed appropriately Misreading of a question stem or an alternative may result in the loss of a few marks only; conversely, the misreading of an essay-type question, followed by the poor writing skills normally associated with a second language, can cause the student to lose an inordinate number of marks.
  • ·       Statistical information on performance can be readily obtained. One can not only find out how the class performed on a particular question, but determine whether the question was suitable in the context in which it was presented. The statistics that are gathered may also be used to rank questions with respect to their difficulty and their ability to discriminate between students of different competences.
  • ·       Tests made up of MCQs can be administered frequently, and thus provide regular information on student performance, not only to the instructor but also to the students.
  • ·       Tests made up of MCQs can provide a better coverage of content than essay-type questions, thus broadening the scope of the test. Such tests can be structured to include questions of defined grades of difficulty and discriminating power
  • ·       In MCQ testing, the instructor "sets the agenda", and there are no opportunities for the candidate to avoid complexities and concentrate on the superficial aspects of the topic, as is often encountered in essay-type questions.

Disadvantages of Multiple Choice Questions

Another disadvantage of multiple choice tests is possible ambiguity in the examinee's interpretation of the item. Failing to interpret information as the test maker intended can result in an "incorrect" response, even if the taker's response is potentially valid. The term "multiple guess" has been used to describe this scenario because test-takers may attempt to guess rather than determine the correct answer. A free response test allows the test taker to make an argument for their viewpoint and potentially receive credit
In addition, even if students have some knowledge of a question, they receive no credit for knowing that information if they select the wrong answer and the item is scored dichotomously. However, free response questions may allow an examinee to demonstrate partial understanding of the subject and receive partial credit.


Bridge, PD, Musial, J, Frank, R, Roe, T, Sawilowski, S. Measurement practices: methods for developing content-valid student examinations. Med Teach 2003; 25: 414-421.

Case, SM, Swanson, DB. Constructing Written Test Questions for the basic and Clinical Sciences, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, P.A.: National Board of Examiners; 2001

Crossley J, Humphries G, Jolly B. Assessing health professionals. Med Educ 2002; 36: 800-804.

Haladyna TM. Developing and Validating Multiple-Choice Test Items, 2nd edn. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1999.

Teaching Reading
Strategies for Developing Reading Skills

Using Reading Strategies
            Language instructors are often frustrated by the fact that students do not automatically transfer the strategies they use when reading in their native language to reading in a language they are learning. Instead, they seem to think reading means starting at the beginning and going word by word, stopping to look up every unknown vocabulary item, until they reach the end. When they do this, students are relying exclusively on their linguistic knowledge, a bottom-up strategy. One of the most important functions of the language instructor, then, is to help students move past this idea and use top-down strategies as they do in their native language.
            Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their reading behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and reading purposes. They help students develop a set of reading strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation.
            Strategies that can help students read more quickly and effectively include
·         Previewing: reviewing titles, section headings, and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection
·         Predicting: using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension; using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure; using knowledge about the author to make predictions about writing style, vocabulary, and content
·         Skimming and scanning: using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, identify text structure, confirm or question predictions
·         Guessing from context: using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words, instead of stopping to look them up
·         Paraphrasing: stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text

            Instructors can help students learn when and how to use reading strategies in several ways.
·         By modeling the strategies aloud, talking through the processes of previewing, predicting, skimming and scanning, and paraphrasing. This shows students how the strategies work and how much they can know about a text before they begin to read word by word.
·         By allowing time in class for group and individual previewing and predicting activities as preparation for in-class or out-of-class reading. Allocating class time to these activities indicates their importance and value.
·         By using cloze (fill in the blank) exercises to review vocabulary items. This helps students learn to guess meaning from context.
·         By encouraging students to talk about what strategies they think will help them approach a reading assignment, and then talking after reading about what strategies they actually used. This helps students develop flexibility in their choice of strategies.
            When language learners use reading strategies, they find that they can control the reading experience, and they gain confidence in their ability to read the language.

Reading to Learn
            Reading is an essential part of language instruction at every level because it supports learning in multiple ways.
·         Reading to learn the language: Reading material is language input. By giving students a variety of materials to read, instructors provide multiple opportunities for students to absorb vocabulary, grammar, sentence structure, and discourse structure as they occur in authentic contexts. Students thus gain a more complete picture of the ways in which the elements of the language work together to convey meaning.
·         Reading for content information: Students' purpose for reading in their native language is often to obtain information about a subject they are studying, and this purpose can be useful in the language learning classroom as well. Reading for content information in the language classroom gives students both authentic reading material and an authentic purpose for reading.
·         Reading for cultural knowledge and awareness: Reading everyday materials that are designed for native speakers can give students insight into the lifestyles and worldviews of the people whose language they are studying. When students have access to newspapers, magazines, and Web sites, they are exposed to culture in all its variety, and monolithic cultural stereotypes begin to break down.

            When reading to learn, students need to follow four basic steps:
1.      Figure out the purpose for reading. Activate background knowledge of the topic in order to predict or anticipate content and identify appropriate reading strategies.
2.      Attend to the parts of the text that are relevant to the identified purpose and ignore the rest. This selectivity enables students to focus on specific items in the input and reduces the amount of information they have to hold in short-term memory.
3.      Select strategies that are appropriate to the reading task and use them flexibly and interactively. Students' comprehension improves and their confidence increases when they use top-down and bottom-up skills simultaneously to construct meaning.
4.      Check comprehension while reading and when the reading task is completed. Monitoring comprehension helps students detect inconsistencies and comprehension failures, helping them learn to use alternate strategies.

Sudjinah. 1980. Materi Pokok Penilaian Pendidikan. Jakarta: Depdikbud
Sudijono, Anas. 1987. Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan. Jakarta: Rajawali Press

The National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC. ©2003, 2004

Retrieved on November 27, 2011 from www.nclrc.org/essentials/reading/stratread.htm

 table of item number click here, please!

1 komentar:

Anonim mengatakan...

I DON'T UNDERSTAND ABOUT THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. what's the role of it. How can we see if the objective is reached or not/// then,, why do you put about MCQ ?? i think it's out of the topic

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